Dutch Royal Family Account Options
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The monarch is according to this article not the head of government, the ministers are not answerable to the monarch within the government.
This fact has practical consequences, in that it is not possible for the monarch and the ministers to be in disagreement.
The government speaks with one voice and makes decisions as a united body. When the monarch acts in an executive capacity, he does so as representative of the united government.
And when the government decides, the monarch is in agreement even if the monarch personally disagrees. As an ultimate consequence of this, it is not possible for the monarch to refuse to sign into law a proposal of law that has been agreed to and signed by the responsible minister.
Such a disagreement between the monarch and his minister is a situation not covered by the constitution and is automatically a constitutional crisis.
The second paragraph of the article, though, is what really renders the monarch powerless. This paragraph states that the monarch is inviolate.
He is beyond any reproach, beyond the grasp of any prosecution criminal or otherwise for any acts committed or actions taken as monarch. If anything goes wrong, the minister responsible for the topic at hand is responsible for the failings of the monarch.
This sounds like it makes the monarch an absolute tyrant, but in fact the opposite is true: since the ministers are responsible, they also have the authority to make the decisions.
The ministers set the course of the government and the country, the ministers make executive decisions and run the affairs of state. And since the government is one, the monarch abides by the decision of the ministers.
In fact the monarchs of the Netherlands rarely make any executive decisions at all and practically never speak in public on any subject other than to read a statement prepared by the Prime Minister since an unfortunate off-the-cuff remark could get a minister into trouble.
The practical consequence of this limit on the power of the monarch is that the monarch never makes a decision on his own.
Every decision, every decree must be countersigned by the responsible minister s. Technically, the monarch has a lot of practical power.
For instance, no proposal of law actually becomes a law until signed by the monarch — and there is no legal requirement for the monarch to sign.
These royal decrees are used for all sorts of things, ranging from appointments of civil servants and military officers to clarifications of how public policy is to be executed to filling in the details of certain laws.
Royal decrees create ministries , [Cons 20] dissolve the houses of the States-General, [Cons 21] and appoint and fire ministers.
However, since the ministers are responsible, royal decrees are in fact made by the responsible minister.
And while the monarch must sign laws and royal decrees before they come into effect, the constitution determines that the responsible ministers and state secretaries must countersign.
This is an Act of the Crown: monarch and minister together , and even that is a formality. Also, while the monarch may technically propose laws "by or on behalf of the King" , ministerial responsibility means that he never does.
And even though the government may refuse to sign a States-General approved proposal into law, this is practically unheard of and the monarch refusing to sign on his own is even rarer and would cause a constitutional crisis.
There is one special case in which the monarch has, if possible, even less power than normal: the appointment of his ministers.
Ministers are appointed by royal decree, which have to be countersigned by the responsible minister. The royal decree to appoint a minister, however, is countersigned by two responsible ministers rather than one: the outgoing minister responsible for the ministry and the Prime Minister.
Given the discussion above, a valid question is whether the position of monarch of the Netherlands is entirely ceremonial. The answer is "no".
After the parliamentary election there follows a period of time in which the leaders of the political parties in the parliament seek to form a coalition of parties that can command a majority of the newly elected parliament.
The current nationwide party-list system, combined with a low threshold for getting a seat two-third percent of the vote makes it all but impossible for one party to win an outright majority.
Thus, the bargaining required to put together a governing coalition is as important as the election itself. This process of negotiations, which can last anywhere from two to four months more on occasion After a likely combination is found, a formateur is appointed to conduct the formal coalition negotiations and form a new Council of Ministers of which the formateur himself usually becomes the Prime Minister.
If the negotiations fail, the cycle starts over. The informateurs and formateur in question are all appointed to this task by the monarch.
The monarch makes his own decision in this, based on advice from the leaders of the different parties in parliament, as well as other important figures the speakers of the new parliament and the senate are among them.
There is usually some popular discussion in the Netherlands around the time of these negotiations about whether the authority of the monarch in this matter should not be limited and whether or not the newly elected parliament should not make the appointments that the monarch makes.
These discussions usually turn to varying degrees on the argument that decision by a monarch is undemocratic and there is no parliamentary oversight over the decision and the monarch might make use of this to push for a government of his or her liking.
On the other hand, it is somewhat questionable that the monarch really has much opportunity here to exert any influence.
The informateur is there to investigate possible coalitions and report on them. He could technically seek "favorable" coalitions, but the political parties involved are usually quite clear on what they want and don't want and the first choice for coalition almost always is the coalition of preference of the largest party in the new parliament.
Besides, the monarchs and particularly the queens have traditionally known better than to appoint controversial informateurs, usually settling for well-established yet fairly neutral people in the political arena the deputy chairman of the Dutch Council of State is a common choice.
Once a potential coalition has been identified the monarch technically has a free rein in selecting a formateur. However, the formateur almost always become the next Prime Minister, and in any case it is a strong convention that a government must command the support of a majority of the House of Representatives in order to stay in office.
These considerations mean that the selected formateur is always the party leader of the largest party in the potential coalition.
However, in March the States-General altered its own procedures, such that any subsequent government formation is done without the monarch's influence.
As no formal procedures had been outlined as to how a government formation without monarch should take place, it was initially feared the subsequent government formation would be chaotic.
The one branch of government in which the monarch has no direct part is the legislative branch, formed by the States-General of the Netherlands.
This parliamentary body consists of two chambers, the House of Representatives also commonly referred to as Parliament and the Senate.
As in most parliamentary democracies the States-General are dually responsible for overseeing the government in its executive duties as well as approving proposals of law before they can become actual laws.
In this respect, it is vital for the government to maintain good relations with the States-General and technically the monarch shares that effort although the monarch never officially speaks to members of the States-General on policy matters due to ministerial responsibility.
Constitutionally, the monarch deals with the States-General in three areas: lawmaking, policy outlining at the opening of the parliamentary year and dissolution.
Of the three, policy outlining is the most straightforward. The parliamentary year is opened on the third Tuesday of September with a joint session of both houses.
This event is mandated by the constitution in Article Tradition has made more of this occasion than a policy speech though, and the event known as Prinsjesdag has become a large affair with much pomp and circumstance, in which the States-General and other major bodies of government assemble in the Ridderzaal to hear the King deliver the speech from the throne after having arrived from the Noordeinde Palace in his golden carriage.
Both in constitutional aspects and in ceremony the event has much in common with both the British State Opening of Parliament and the American State of the Union.
Lawmaking is the area in which the monarch has the most frequent involvement with the States-General although in fact he has very little to do with it in practice.
Laws in the Netherlands are primarily proposed by the government and can be proposed "by or on behalf of" the monarch this phrase is repeated often in the constitution.
However, this possibility is at odds with ministerial responsibility and the queens have always avoided the issue by never proposing laws in person.
The monarch must still sign proposals into law though, a historical deference to the fact that the law of the land is decreed by the monarch.
While the monarch has no practical involvement anymore in lawmaking other than a signature at the end, one might get a different impression from reading the communication between the government and the States-General regarding proposals of law and the laws themselves.
All communication from the States-General to the government is addressed to the monarch and communication in the opposite direction formally is from the monarch it is also signed by the monarch, without a ministerial countersignature — such communication is not a decision or decree, so does not require a countersignature.
The formal language still shows deference to the position of the monarch, with a refusal of the States-General to approve a proposal of law for example becoming "a request to the King to reconsider the proposal".
The constitution prescribes a number of the forms used: [Cons 27]. The final involvement of the monarch with the States is dissolution.
Constitutionally, the government is empowered to dissolve either house of the states by royal decree. This means that a minister usually the prime minister makes the decision and the monarch countersigns.
The signing of such a royal decree constitutionally implies new elections for the house in question and the formation of a new house within three months of dissolution.
The constitution prescribes a number of cases in which one or more houses of the States are dissolved particularly for changes to the constitution ; this is always done by royal decree.
In addition, traditionally a collapse of the government is followed by dissolution of the House of Representatives and general elections.
Before World War II , before it became common to form new governments with each new parliament, it would happen from time to time that a Council of Ministers found itself suddenly facing a new and unfriendly parliament.
When the inevitable clash came, it was an established political trick for the Prime Minister to attempt to resolve the problem by dissolving the parliament in name of the monarch in the hope that new elections brought a more favorable parliament but it was also possible for the trick to backfire, in which case the new, equally hostile and far more angry parliament would suspend the budget to force the resignation of the government.
Even though the monarch never speaks with members of the States-General formally, it was tradition up to that the queen would invite the members of parliament over once a year for informal talks about the general state of affairs in the country.
These conversations were held in the strictest confidence due to ministerial responsibility. The tradition was suspended after though, after repeated incidents in which MPs divulged the contents of the conversations, despite agreeing not to and embarrassing the Prime Minister in doing so.
In , an attempt was made to resume the tradition, but this failed when Arend Jan Boekestijn resumed the tradition of revealing the contents of his conversation with Queen Beatrix anyway.
The monarch has several functions in addition to the duties and responsibilities described in previous sections.
Some of these are partly constitutional; others are more traditional in nature. Although the constitution does not say so, the monarch is the head of state of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
As such, the monarch is the face of the kingdom toward the world: ambassadors of the Netherlands are emissaries of the monarch, foreign ambassadors represent foreign heads of state to the monarch.
And even though head-of-government responsibility lies with the Prime Minister, it is the monarch that makes state visits to foreign heads of state as representative of the Netherlands.
It is also the monarch whose face is shown on Dutch stamps and Dutch euro coins. Constitutionally, the monarch is the head of the Dutch Council of State.
First, it is an advisory council to the government which advises on the desirability, practicability and constitutionality of new proposals of law.
Second, it is the Supreme court for the Netherlands in matters of administrative law. The role played by the monarch in the Council is largely theoretical due to ministerial responsibility.
While the monarch is officially head of the Council, in practice the king never votes in Council meetings and always turns over his responsibility as chair of the meetings to the deputy head of the Council.
He is presumed to be part of the discussions though. Despite the limitations on the role the monarch may play in the Council, his involvement is seen as valuable due to the experience and knowledge that a monarch accrues over the years.
Reciprocally, being part of the Council deliberations is considered invaluable training and preparation for the role of monarch, which is why the heir-apparent is constitutionally an observer-member of the Council from the time he comes of age.
Lastly, the monarch plays a very large but completely unofficial role in the running of the country as advisor and confidant to the government.
This duty traditionally takes the form of a weekly meeting between the Prime Minister and the monarch in which they discuss the affairs of the week, the plans of the cabinet and so on.
It is assumed that the monarch exerts most of his influence as such in these meetings, in that he can bring his knowledge and experience to bear in what he tells the Prime Minister.
In the case of Queen Beatrix, several former Prime Ministers have remarked that her case knowledge of each and every dossier is extensive and that she makes sure to be fully aware of all the details surrounding everything that lands on her desk.
Perhaps somewhat surprisingly for a monarchy, the monarch is not formally the commander-in-chief of the military of the Netherlands.
He was until , but a large overhaul of the constitution that year shifted supreme command of the armed forces to the government as a whole.
Article 40 of the constitution states that the monarch is to receive an annual stipend from the kingdom in other words wages , except that it cannot be called that since the monarch is not employed by the country but rather the other way around.
The exact rules surrounding these stipends are to be determined by law, as is the list of members of the royal house who also receive them.
Under current Dutch law the monarch receives an annual stipend which is part of the annual budget, as do the heir-apparent if of age , the spouse of the monarch, the spouse of the heir-apparent, the former monarch, and the spouse of the former monarch.
The monarch receives this stipend constitutionally, the others because they are not allowed to work for anybody due to their positions.
This stipend is linked to the development of the wages of Dutch civil servants. At the beginning of there was some upset in the parliament about the cost of the royal house and the lack of insight into the structure of those costs.
At the insistence of the parliament the development of the stipends of the royal house members was then linked to the development of the salaries of the Dutch civil servants.
In September , at the first budget debate in parliament during the economic crisis, it was pointed out to the parliament that their earlier decision meant that the stipend to the queen would now also increase.
This in turn was reason for the parliament to be displeased again. Under the constitution, royal house members receiving a stipend are exempt from income tax over that stipend.
The monarch has the use of Huis ten Bosch as a residence and Noordeinde Palace as a work palace. In addition the Royal Palace of Amsterdam is also at the disposal of the monarch although it is only used for state visits and is open to the public when not in use for that purpose , as is Soestdijk Palace which is open to the public and not in official use at all at this time.
The monarch has the use of an airplane and a train for state visits although the airplane is not exclusively reserved for the monarch anymore and the train spends most of its time on display at the Dutch Railway Museum.
The monarch is protected by law against Lese-majesty. This is actively enforced,    although the sentences tend to be light.
According to Dutch TV , in total 18 prosecutions were brought under the law between and , half of which resulted in convictions.
The royal family has become quite extensive since the birth of Queen Juliana 's children. By consequence so has the Dutch royal house nominally the collection of persons in line for the throne and their spouses , to the extent that membership of the royal house was limited by a change in the law in Despite being a large clan, the family as a whole has very little to do officially with Dutch government or the running of the Netherlands.
Constitutionally, an important role is played by the monarch. Since neither the monarch nor the heir-apparent may hold jobs, they receive a stipend from the government.
Their spouses are similarly forbidden from earning an income and receive a stipend as well.
But constitutionally that is the whole of the involvement of the royal family with the Dutch government.
In particular, members of the royal house other than the monarch and the heir-apparent have no official tasks within the Dutch government and do not receive stipends.
They are responsible for their own conduct and their own income. They may be asked to stand in from time to time such as to accompany the monarch on a state visit if the consort is ill, but this is always a personal favor and not an official duty.
In addition, they are not exempt from taxation. Many members of the royal family hold or have held significant positions within civil society , usually functioning as head or spokesperson of one or more charitable organizations , patron of the arts and similar endeavors.
Some members of the royal family are also or have been avid supporters of some personal cause; Prince Bernhard for instance was always passionate about the treatment of World War II veterans and Princess Margriet who was born in Canada has a special relationship with Canadian veterans specifically.
As a rule of thumb, the members of the royal family who are contemporaries of Princess Beatrix tend to hold civil society positions as a primary occupation whereas younger family members hold these positions in conjunction with a regular, paying job.
A notable exception to this rule is Pieter van Vollenhoven husband to Princess Margriet , who was chairman of the Dutch Safety Board until his retirement.
As noted earlier, the spouses of the monarch and the heir-apparent are forbidden from holding paying jobs or government responsibilities.
This is to prevent any monetary entanglements or undue influences involving the current and future monarchs. These legal limits were not a great problem when they were instituted in the 19th century; The Netherlands had kings and it was considered normal for a married woman to tend the household, raise the family and not to hold any position outside the home.
The limits have been more problematic since the early 20th century, when the monarchy of the Netherlands passed to a series of queens and the consorts became men, starting with Prince Hendrik in The male consorts since then have all either been raised with an expectation of government responsibility such as Prince Hendrik , or had established careers of their own before marrying the future queen Prince Bernhard and Prince Claus.
Upon marrying into the Dutch royal family they all found themselves severely restricted in their freedom to act and make use of their abilities.
All of the male consorts have been involved in some form of difficulty or another scandals involving infidelity and finances in the cases of Hendrik and Bernhard, deep depression in the case of Claus and it has been widely speculated and even generally accepted that sheer boredom played at least a part in all of these difficulties.
Over time the restrictions on royal consorts have eased somewhat. Prince Hendrik was allowed no part or role in the Netherlands whatsoever.
Due to his war efforts, Prince Bernhard was made Inspector General of the Dutch armed forces although that role was created for him and was an unofficial ambassador for the Netherlands who leveraged his wartime contacts to help Dutch industry.
All that came to a halt in however, after the Lockheed bribery scandals. Prince Claus was allowed more leeway still after having established himself in Dutch society he was unpopular at first, being a German marrying into the royal family after World War II ; he was eventually given an advisorship within the Ministry for Development Cooperation pertaining to Africa , where he made good use of his experiences as a German diplomat in that continent.
Although Dutch lawmakers have historically favored being very conservative about creating special legal positions for members of the royal house or the royal family, there is one area in which the rules for members of the royal house are very different from those for other Dutch citizens: the area of death and burial.
The reason for this exceptional position of members of the royal house is traditional. Ever since the burial of William the Silent in the Nieuwe Kerk in Delft , members of the Orange-Nassau family have favored burial in the same crypt where William was entombed some members of the family buried elsewhere were even moved there later.
However, for health and hygiene reasons, burial in churches was forbidden in the Netherlands by decree of William I in the practice had been banned before under French occupation of the country, but returned after In order to allow entombing of members of the Royal family, all Dutch laws pertaining to burial have made an exception for the royal house ever since the decree.
Burial of members of the royal house is completely a matter of tradition, circumstance, practicality and spirit of the times this due to the lack of any formal rules whatsoever.
As a rule of thumb, the body of a deceased member of the royal house is placed on display for a few days in one of the palaces, to allow the family to say goodbye.
Depending on the identity of the deceased a deceased monarch, for instance , there may also be a viewing for the public. Then, on the burial day, the body is transported to Delft in a special horse-drawn carriage.
Current protocol specifies eight horses for a deceased monarch and six for a deceased royal consort which is relatively new, since Prince Hendrik was borne to Delft by eight horses.
The current carriage is purple with white trim this has also changed since the burial of Queen Wilhelmina in , when the carriage was white.
Currently, the route to Delft is lined by members of the Dutch armed forces which is also new since the burial of Prince Hendrik, which was a very quiet affair.
Once in Delft, the body is entombed in the family crypt after a short service. Only members of the family are allowed into the crypt, through the main entrance in the church which is only opened for royal funerals the mayor of Delft has a key to a separate service entrance, which is only opened in the presence of two military police officers and two members of the Dutch General Intelligence and Security Service for maintenance.
The importance and position of the monarchy within Dutch society has changed over time, together with changes in the constitutional position of the monarchy.
The monarchy of the Netherlands was established in as a reaction to the decline and eventual fall of the Dutch Republic. It was observed at the time that a large part of the decline of the republic was due to a lack of a strong, central government in the face of strong, centrally led competitor nations such as Great Britain and the French kingdom.
After the defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte in and the resurrection of the Netherlands, it was decided to reform the republic in the Kingdom of the Netherlands with a monarchy rather than the old stadtholder system.
The original monarchy was absolute in nature, with the States-General serving as more of an advisory board without the power to do much against the king.
This state of affairs allowed the king great freedom to determine the course of the nation and indeed William I was able to push through many changes that set the nation on the course towards industrialization and wealth.
On the other hand, his policies caused great discord with the Southern Netherlands, leading to the Belgian Revolution and a years-long war.
A backlash against these policies plus rising fear of early Marxism led to acceptance by William II of a series of reforms, starting with a new constitution in which was the start of a continuing series of limitations on royal power.
Direct political power and influence of the king continued until , although it slowly declined in the meantime. Both William I and William II proved quite conservative rulers although William II was less inclined to interfere with policy than his father was , William I resisted major reforms until eventually conflict with the States-General and his own government forced his abdication.
William III 's reign was a continuous saga of power struggles between the monarch and the parliamentary government which he forced out a couple of times , plus major international crises due to the same stubbornness including the Luxembourg Crisis.
As a result, the Dutch government used the succession of William III by a female regent as an opportunity to make a power play and establish government authority over royal authority.
Queen Wilhelmina was not happy with the new situation and made several half-hearted attempts during her reign to reassert authority.
She was partly successful in certain areas being able to push for military rearmament before World War I but she never succeeded in restoring royal power.
She did introduce a new concept to Dutch royalty though: the popular monarch. Establishing her popularity in military circles through her support of Dutch military prior to , she was able to wield her personal popularity to uphold the government against a socialist revolution in Royal power continued to decline until the start of World War II.
Forced to flee to London , Queen Wilhelmina established the position of "mother of the Dutch state" through her radio broadcasts into the occupied Netherlands and her support for other Dutchmen evading the Germans and fighting from England.
She tried to position her family into more influence by giving Prince Bernhard an important position in the military, but was still relegated to a position of constitutional monarchy after the war.
Following Wilhelmina's abdication in , the Orange family seems to have settled for a position of unofficial influence behind the scenes coupled with a role as "popular monarchs" in public.
As such the monarchs are practically never seen in public doing their official work except news footage of state visits and the reading of the government plans on Prinsjesdag and instead their relationship with the public has become more of a popular and romanticized notion of royalty.
Queens Juliana and Beatrix were popularly perceived to have a figurehead role, serving to some extent as "mother of the nation" in times of crises and disasters such as the floods.
In addition, there is a public holiday called Koningsdag before Koninginnedag , during which the royal family pays a visit somewhere in the country and participates in local activities and traditions in order to get closer to the people.
The popularity of the monarchy has changed over time, with constitutional influence, circumstance and economic tides. When the monarchy was established in , popularity was not a major concern.
This changed drastically over the following years as William I's policies alienated the Southern Netherlands, drew the country into civil war and established industries that favored the rich Protestants and not the general populace.
Royal popularity remained relatively low throughout the reign of the kings. William II was conservative, but on the whole did as little to lose popularity as he did to gain it.
Economic decline drove most of his popular decline, although popular support for the monarch was still not considered of much import then.
William III was unpopular under a wide section of the public. Royal popularity started to increase with Wilhelmina's ascent to the throne.
She pushed for national reforms, was a huge supporter of the armed forces and strove for renewed industrialization.
Around the country was generally divided into two camps: socialists in the cities, royalists elsewhere. This showed in the dividing lines during the failed Troelstra revolution , where Troelstra gained popular support in the larger cities but the countryside flocked to the queen.
Wilhelmina was able to muster popular support with a countryside "publicity tour" together with her daughter — this showing of popular support for the queen was instrumental in halting the revolution and stabilizing the government.
Still, Wilhelmina remained deeply unpopular in the cities throughout the s and s. Wilhelmina was forced to retreat to London, but refused evacuation all the way to Canada although princess Juliana was sent there with her children.
Wilhelmina regularly held radio broadcasts into the occupied Netherlands and staunchly supported the Dutch troops in exile.
She became the symbol for Dutch resistance against the Germans. Wilhelmina established popular support for the monarchy that essentially holds to this day [ citation needed ].
Prior to the Batavian Revolution of , the semi-independent provinces of the Netherlands had chief-executives called stadtholders , who were all drawn from the House of Orange or the House of Nassau by primogeniture.
After the office became formally hereditary in all seven provinces in the House of Orange-Nassau. Their title ' Prince of Orange ' was acquired through inheritance of the Principality of Orange in southern France , in From to his death in , he led the Dutch struggle for independence from Spain.
His younger brother, John VI, Count of Nassau-Dillenburg , Stadtholder of Utrecht, was the direct male line ancestor of the later Stadtholders of Friesland and Groningen , the later hereditary stadtholders and the first King of the Netherlands.
The Netherlands remained, formally, a confederated republic, even when in the office of stadtholder was centralized one stadtholder for all provinces and became formally hereditary under the House of Orange-Nassau.
The present monarchy was founded in , when the French were driven out. The new regime was headed by Prince William Frederick of Orange, the son of the last stadtholder.
He originally reigned over only the territory of the old republic as " sovereign prince ". As part of the rearrangement of Europe at the Congress of Vienna , the House of Orange-Nassau was confirmed as rulers of the Kingdom of the Netherlands , enlarged with what are now Belgium and Luxembourg.
At the same time, William became hereditary Grand Duke of Luxembourg in exchange for ceding his family's hereditary lands in Germany to Nassau-Weilburg and Prussia.
The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg was a part of the Netherlands until while at the same time a member state of the German Confederation.
It became fully independent in , but remained in a personal union with the Kingdom of the Netherlands until Abdication of the throne has become a de facto tradition in the Dutch monarchy.
It became the Protestant Church in the Netherlands after its merger, but some members of the Royal Family are Catholic. There is no law in the Netherlands stipulating what religion the monarch should be, although the constitution stipulated up to that marriage to a catholic meant loss of rights to the throne the constitutional overhaul of changed this to a requirement that potential heirs must seek parliamentary approval before marriage in order to retain rights of succession.
As such, these items have a cultural significance beyond that of simple artworks and jewellery, and have therefore been placed in the hands of trusts: the House of Orange-Nassau Archives Trust and the House of Orange-Nassau Historic Collections Trust.
Queen Juliana had sold the remaining royal palaces and had put the cultural assets paintings, antiques, books, etc. The crown jewels , comprising the crown , orb and sceptre , Sword of State , royal banner, and ermine mantle have been placed in the Crown Property Trust.
The trust also holds the items used on ceremonial occasions, such as the carriages, table silver, and dinner services. Her Majesty often extends a welcoming hand to the other royal houses of Europe, which include the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Denmark, Norway and Spain.
Queen Juliana abdicated at the age of 71 in , and her own mother Queen Wilhelmina abdicated due to failing health in Her eldest son King Willem-Alexander took the throne in that year, however Beatrix continues to undertake some royal duties and patronages.
Although it is a more distant relationship than other royal houses of Europe, because the Dutch royal family are not descendants of Queen Victoria, this places King Willem-Alexander at number in line to the British throne.
Queen Juliana was evacuated, alongside her mother Queen Wilhelmina, to the UK during World War 2 during the German invasion of the Netherlands, with Wilhelmina staying in London with the government-in-exile until liberation in
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Her Majesty often extends a welcoming hand to the other royal houses of Europe, which include the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Denmark, Norway and Spain.
Queen Juliana abdicated at the age of 71 in , and her own mother Queen Wilhelmina abdicated due to failing health in Her eldest son King Willem-Alexander took the throne in that year, however Beatrix continues to undertake some royal duties and patronages.
Although it is a more distant relationship than other royal houses of Europe, because the Dutch royal family are not descendants of Queen Victoria, this places King Willem-Alexander at number in line to the British throne.
Queen Juliana was evacuated, alongside her mother Queen Wilhelmina, to the UK during World War 2 during the German invasion of the Netherlands, with Wilhelmina staying in London with the government-in-exile until liberation in He was also a sovereign ruler in his own right see Prince of Orange article.
This gave him a great deal of prestige, even in a republic. He was the center of a real court like the Stuarts and Bourbons, French speaking, and extravagant to a scale.
It was natural for foreign ambassadors and dignitaries to present themselves to him and consult with him as well as to the States General to which they were officially credited.
The marriage policy of the princes, allying themselves twice with the Royal Stuarts, also gave them acceptance into the royal caste of rulers.
Besides showing the relationships among the family, the tree above then also points out an extraordinary run of bad luck.
In the years from the death of William the Silent to the conquest by France, there was only one time that a son directly succeeded his father as Prince of Orange, Stadholder and Captain-General without a minority William II.
When the Oranges were in power, they also tended to settle for the actualities of power, rather than the appearances, which increasingly tended to upset the ruling regents of the towns and cities.
On being offered the dukedom of Gelderland by the States of that province, William III let the offer lapse as liable to raise too much opposition in the other provinces.
The main house of Orange-Nassau also spawned several illegitimate branches. These branches contributed to the political and economic history of England and the Netherlands.
Justinus van Nassau was the only extramarital child of William of Orange. His descendants were later created Counts of Nassau-LaLecq.
His descendants became the Earls of Grantham in England. The 4th earl of Rochford was a famous English diplomat and a statesman. The institution of the monarch in the Netherlands is considered an office under the Dutch Constitution.
There are none of the religious connotations to the office as in some other monarchies. A Dutch sovereign is inaugurated rather than crowned in a coronation ceremony.
In practice today, the monarch has considerably less power. This summary genealogical tree shows how the current Royal house of Orange-Nassau is related: .
The gallery below show the coats of arms used by members of the house of Orange-Nassau. Their growing complexity and use of crowns shows how arms are used to reflect the growing political position and royal aspirations of the family.
The ancestral coat of arms of the Ottonian line of the house of Nassau is shown right. Their distant cousins of the Walramian line added a red coronet to distinguish them.
There is no specific documentation in the literature on the origin of the arms. The lion was always a popular noble symbol, originating as a symbol of nobility, power, and royal aspirations in western culture going all the way back to Hercules.
The lion was also heavily used as a heraldic symbol in border territories and neighbouring countries of the Holy Roman Empire and France.
It was in all likelihood a way of showing independence from the Holy Roman Emperor , who used an eagle in his personal arms and the King of France , who used the famous Fleur-de-lis.
The lion was so heavily used in the Netherlands for various provinces and families see Leo Belgicus that it became the national arms of the Dutch Republic , its successor Kingdom of the Netherlands , Coat of Arms of Belgium , and Luxembourg.
Blue, because of its nearness to purple, which in the northern climes tended to fade red was the other choice , was also a popular color for those with royal aspirations.
The billets could have been anything from blocks of wood to abstractions of the reenforcements holding the shield together.
His and his uncle's arms are shown below. The blue and gold cross is the arms of Jeanne of Geneva, who married one of the Chalons princes.
The 2nd and 3rd show the quarterings of Brittany and Luxembourg-St. The inescutcheon overall is his paternal arms quartered of Nassau and Breda.
William the Silent 's father, William the Rich, was rich only in children. He bore the arms shown below. Clockwise from upper left they displayed the arms of Nassau 1st quarter , Katzenelenbogen 3rd quarter , Dietz 2nd quarter , Vianden 4th quarter.
Coat of arms of Rene of Chalons as Prince of Orange. Arms of William the Rich, count of Nassau-Dillenburg. The princes of Orange in the 16th and 17th century used the following sets of arms.
He used these arms until when he purchased the marquisate of Veere and Vlissingen. It had been the property of Philip II since , but had fallen into arrears to the province.
In the Court of Holland ordered it sold. William bought it as it gave him two more votes in the States of Zeeland. He owned the government of the two towns, and so could appoint their magistrates.
This made William the predominant member of the States of Zeeland. William then added the shield of Veere and Buren to his arms as shown in the arms of Frederick Henry , William II and William III with the arms of the marquisate in the top center, and the arms of the county of Buren in the bottom center.
The coat of arms used by Maurice showing the county of Moers top left center and bottom right center and his mother's arms of Saxony center  : 78  .
Coat of arms on expeditionary banner of William and Mary, , showing the arms of William III impaled with the royal arms of England. However, he was never recognized outside of Holland and areas friendly to Holland as Prince of Orange.
These principalities were confiscated when Napoleon invaded Germany and William VI supported his Prussian relatives. He succeeded his father as prince of Orange later that year, after William V's death.
The house of Orange-Nassau also had several illegitimate lines see below who based their arms on the arms of Nassau-Dillenburg.
The bottom most shield shows clockwise from top left the principality of Fulda, the lordship of Corvey, the county of Weingarten, and the lordship of Dortmund.
Arms of Justinus van Nassau ,  natural son of William the Silent. Arms of the lords of Zuylestein , natural son of Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange and his descendants the earls of Rochford in England .
As an in escutcheon he placed his ancestral arms of Nassau. When he became King in , he combined the Dutch Republic Lion with the billets of the Nassau arms and added a royal crown to form the Coat of arms of the Netherlands.
In , Queen Wilhelmina replaced the royal crown on the lion and the shield bearers of the arms with a coronet. Arms of the States General of the Dutch Republic.
The sword symbolizes the determination to defend the nation, and the bundle of 7 arrows the unity of the 7 United Provinces of the Dutch Republic.
Arms of William VI as sovereign prince of the Netherlands. First arms of the Kingdom and Kings of the Netherlands from to Arms of the Kingdom and Kings of the Netherlands since Wilhelmina further decreed that in perpetuity her descendants should be styled "princes and princesses of Orange-Nassau" and that the name of the house would be "Orange-Nassau" in Dutch "Oranje-Nassau".
Only those members of the members of the Dutch Royal Family that are designated to the smaller "Royal House" can use the title of prince or princess of the Netherlands.
This is usually the royal arms, quartered with the arms of the principality of Orange , and an in escutcheon of their paternal arms.
As sovereign Princes, the princes of Orange used an independent prince's crown or the princely hat. Sometimes, only the coronet part was used see , here and here.
The full coats of arms of the princes of Orange, later Kings of the Netherlands, incorporated the arms above, the crown, 2 lions as supporters and the motto "Je maintiendrai" "I will maintain" , the latter taken from the Chalons princes of Orange, who used "Je maintiendrai Chalons".
Besides being sovereign over the principality of Orange , this is a partial listing of larger estates and titles that William the Silent and his heirs possessed, most enfeoffed to some other sovereign, either the King of France , the Habsburgs , or the States of the provinces of the Netherlands:.
In most of the estates in the more populous provinces of Holland and Zealand, the land itself was secondary to the profit on the commerce that flowed through it.
The Dutch Royal Family also makes extensive use of royal standards that are based on their coats of arms, but not identical to them as the British Royal Family does.
Some examples from the Royal Family's website are: . The standards of the current sons of the former Queen, now Princess Beatrix and their wives and the Queen's husband:.
Traditionally, members of the Nassau family were buried in Breda ; but because that city was in Spanish hands when William died, he was buried in a new crypt in the New Church , Delft.
The monument on his tomb was originally very modest, but it was replaced in by a new one, made by Hendrik de Keyser and his son Pieter.
Since then, most of the members of the House of Orange-Nassau, including all Dutch monarchs have been buried in that church. In Robert A.
Heinlein 's science fiction novel Double Star , the House of Orange reigns over — but does not rule over — an empire of humanity that spans the entire Solar System.
Royal Palace of Amsterdam. Huis ten Bosch palace , The Hague. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see House of Orange disambiguation.
Royal arms of the Netherlands. See also: List of the richest royals. Father of the nation , William the Silent, Prince of Orange. See also: Coat of arms of the Netherlands.
Noordeinde Palace , The Hague. Het Loo Palace. Soestdijk Palace. The princes of Orange: the stadholders in the Dutch Republic. Cambridge University Press.
The House of Orange. History of the people of the Netherlands. New York: G. Putnam's sons.
Oxford University Press. From an engraving on exhibit in the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam. Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam. Retrieved 26 April The Rise of the Dutch Republic.
London: John Murray. Orange and Stuart — Arnold Pomerans trans. John de Witt, grand pensionary of Holland, — Princeton University Press.
He lost the possessions again after changing sides from France to Prussia in when he refused to join the Confederation of the Rhine.
The International History Review. Pikkemaat Alphen aan den Rijn: N. Samsom nv. Archived from the original on 30 May Archived from the original on 29 September Retrieved April 29, Potter, Inc.
Retrieved 5 September The Dutch in the Seventeenth Century. Thames and Hudson. Handboek der Wapenkunde. De barensteel is van keel en beladen met een gouden koningskroon.
Armorial general. Genealogical Publishing Co. Retrieved 26 May Cimier: 1er un demi-vol cont. Supports: deux lions d'or, arm. Archived from the original on 11 January Retrieved 1 June Retrieved 9 November Retrieved 30 April Het wapen van het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden Rijkswapen en dat van de Koningen der Nederlanden Koninklijk wapen is vanaf de oprichting van het Koninkrijk in identiek.
Het Wapen werd in gewijzigd en laatstelijk vastgesteld bij Koninklijk Besluit van 23 april , nr. De beschrijving van het wapenschild in het eerste artikel is dwingend voorgeschreven, de in het tweede en derde artikel beschreven uitwendige versierselen zijn facultatief.
In de praktijk wordt de basisuitvoering van het wapen wel het Klein Rijkswapen genoemd. Het Koninklijk Wapen wordt sinds gekenmerkt door een gouden klimmende leeuw met gravenkroon.
De blauwe achtergrond het veld is bezaaid met verticale gouden blokjes. De term bezaaid geeft in de heraldiek aan dat het aantal niet vaststaat, waardoor er ook een aantal niet compleet zijn afgebeeld.
Het wapenschild wordt gehouden door twee leeuwen die in profiel zijn afgebeeld. Op het wapenschild is een Koningskroon geplaatst.
Op een lint dat onder het wapenschild bevestigd is, staat de spreuk 'Je Maintiendrai'. Bij Koninklijk Besluit van 10 juli Stb. Article on Maurits van Vollenhoven, Retrieved 4 April Royal houses of Europe.
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Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. Babenberg Habsburg Habsburg-Lorraine Ottoman. Royal or noble family trees. Aztec Brazil Mexico. Family tree Ahnentafel Genealogical numbering systems Quarters of nobility Seize quartiers Royal descent.
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Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands in cognatic line. Stadtholder . Maurice Prince of Orange. Stadtholder,  son of William I.
Frederick Henry Prince of Orange. Stadtholder,  son of William I. William II Prince of Orange. Stadtholder,  son of Frederick Henry.
Stadtholder,  son of William II . William IV Prince of Orange. William V Prince of Orange. Stadtholder,  brother of William I.
Stadtholder,  son of John VI. Ernest Casimir I. Stadtholder,  son of John VI. Henry Casimir I. Stadtholder,  son of Ernest Casimir I.
William Frederick. Stadtholder,  son of Ernest Casimir I. Henry Casimir II. Hereditary Stadtholder,  son of William Frederick. John William Friso.
Nassau , Orange-Nassau. William I. Raised Netherlands to status of kingdom in , son of Stadtholder William V.
Son of the last Stadtholder William V. William II. William III. Daughter of William III. Daughter of Wilhelmina.
Orange-Nassau House of Mecklenburg. Daughter of Juliana. Orange-Nassau House of Lippe. Orange-Nassau House of Amsberg.
Dudo of Laurenburg German: Dudo ca. Rupert I of Nassau German: Ruprecht ca. Arnold I, Count of Laurenburg died ca.
Herrmann d after 3 December Canon of Mainz Cathedral. Walram II of Nassau ca. Rupert Ruprecht V d.
Otto I of Nassau reigned ca. John ca. Adolf ca. Henry d. Emich d. John d.Ohne diese Szene direkt bei einer Aufführung zu click the following article, kann man sich allein schon beim Lesen der Dialogtexte die charakterlichen Merkmale der drei Minister lebendig ausmalen: Pak ist dick und verkörpert den Typ eines groben Kriegers, der beim geringsten Anlass das Schwert zieht; Mun this web page [ The iconographic programme read article the interior paintings, connected by these thoughts, is unsurpassed in Rangliste Boxen, quality and theme in the Netherlands. A wing of the palace, however, has been fitted out as a guest accommodation and is suitable for representative click here. Use my location. Haagse Tones Deutsch makes an essential contribution to the green character of The Hague. Blog Press Information Linguee Apps.